Archivo de la categoría: Políticas Públicas

COVID-19: Families and Child Rights

by José A. Vázquez in collaboration with the International Organizations Department of the International Federation for Family Development (IFFD)


   While the COVID-19 pandemic has been spreading around the world, the poorest and most vulnerable have been the hardest hit, especially women, children, older persons, persons with disabilities and their families[1]. Stress levels within the family have risen, domestic violence has been endured by women and children alike, students have been out of school with unequal access to distance learning, older persons have paid the highest price with alarming death toll and health care workers have been at the front-line of the response efforts[2].

   It is clear that every household has faced unprecedented challenges related to confinement, school closures and job disruptions. As a consequence, parents and caregivers are deeply concerned for their families’ well-being with special attention to children, the means to protect them, ensure their care, their quality education and future opportunities. As in 2008 and the following years, families are facing a similar situation. The effects of the economic collapse impacted millions of children and their families. The financial crisis turned into a global recession while governments responded with changes to a suite of social and economic policies. In an effort to cushion the impact many countries endured a period of stimulus followed by a move towards austerity[3].

   Similarly, in 2020 many countries have started stimulus plans while austerity periods are most probably set to follow. In order to respond accordingly and prevent a bigger impact on the most vulnerable, children’s well-being and their future has to be prioritized. Innovative and holistic ways to protect the youngest generations are needed to endure dire circumstances and to efficiently use available resources. Every policy should consider that children live in the context of the family and the family exists in the context of the economy. Policymakers must consider the macro and micro context for families and their children in order to make sense of the potential effects of the stimulus and austerity measures on the lives of the youngest[4].

   During the following years and the various cuts to follow, there are many good reasons to focus on the levels of spending on children. First, children are mostly in a family environment, and regardless of their opportunities, it is fair to have a holistic approach to make the most of their available opportunities. Second, because the way children are taken care of today will affect the future generations. Third, if children in vulnerable situations and susceptible to poor outcomes lose investment in critical periods of the life cycle, the long-term impact and costs will have consequences for them, their families and the communities. A preventive approach while investing in children is efficient and fair. The gaps in child outcomes closed early are gaps closed more cheaply, and gaps future policymakers and taxpayers will not have to worry about[5].

   Perhaps, the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) should be a starting point for a better assessment of the policy implications on children and their families. Children’s rights are defined in numerous ways, including a wide spectrum of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights[6]. The CRC sets a basic “contract” not only between the signatories and children, but also between adults and children. It is a model to follow in order to ensure that children have access to resources, they are protected and they are allowed to participate. The «contract» is built upon three universal elements of the organisation of childhood in any society and at any time: provision, protection and participation, usually known as the three P’s[7]. As a result, it can be a useful roadmap for the design and implementation of social policies considering the austerity period ahead and the family as the first “signatory” of children rights[8].


   The CRC stresses that children should be able to possess, receive or have access “to the maximum extent of available resources”[9] through sharing and/or distribution. In this regard, this provision has implications involving a wide variety of resource allocation such as an adequate standard of living, health care and education. These provisions have a direct impact on policy design and implementation because states and adults need to establish which kinds of resources are distributed and what are the explicit and implicit consequences of certain decisions about resources. Moreover, which kinds of resources are produced and shared and by whom, or discover if children have any resources that can be shared.

   To start with, at a household level an adequate standard of living stands out as a critical layer of protection. Physical distancing and lockdown measures have isolated entire families in their houses and sometimes they are inadequate to share and live in for an extended period of time[10]. Furthermore, income collapse threatens the livelihoods of millions of households with children worldwide, precluding an increase in extreme poverty. Such income shocks at the household level, even if only temporary, can have devastating effects on children, particularly those living in poor households with limited assets[11]. For instance, as of 10 April 2020, 126 countries have expanded social protection assistance programmes to compensate households for lost income, of which 83 provide explicit support for children and their families[12].

   Health care provisions are becoming critical for children and their families. Even though infection, hospitalization and critical care rates are low on children, the broader effects of the pandemic on child health are significant[13]. For instance, poor families are forced to cut back on essential health and food expenditures, increasing the risk of contracting other diseases and infant mortality while, child health services and interventions are being directly disrupted by the pandemic[14]. Also, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services are at risk, threatening children’s health through water-borne diseases and given the critical role of hygiene during the pandemic. At the same time, the effects of confinement are affecting children’s mental health. Many are facing anxiety and uncertainty regarding the future while, extreme deprivations and acute stress can impair their cognitive development and trigger longer term mental health challenges[15].

   In addition, the unprecedented global closure of schools has halted the education provision of more than 1.5 billion children[16]. In the long term, it is hard to measure the magnitude of losses that may accrue in learning for today’s young generation, and for the development of their human capital. In order to minimize the squandering, many schools are offering distance learning to their students and parents are stepping in the education process. But not all pupils have access to new educational alternatives, especially those from low income countries, refugees, children with disabilities and girls. Plus, the quality and accessibility of distance education can hinder social inclusion in a future economic contraction due to school drop-out and low performance[17].


   The CRC also mentions the right to protection from abuse, neglect, exploitation and discrimination. Protection stands for the right to be shielded from certain acts and practices including the right to safe places for children to play, constructive child rearing behavior, and acknowledgment of the evolving capacities of children. It is actually close to what we consider as parenting. Parents and caregivers are the first layer of protection of a child and in the framework of the COVID-19 pandemic, parenting skills are in urgent need.

   Home represents security and safety for most children, but sadly for a minority it is the opposite. The most common form of violence experienced by children comes from their own parents or care-givers[18]. They are often witnesses to domestic violence against their mothers or sisters, a situation that has increased in many countries following the COVID-19 outbreak with a spike of anxiety and stress[19]. An innovative and holistic way to support children at home can be helping their parents and caregivers to alleviate the isolation effects. For example, attacking the root of the concerns by designing a schedule, assigning chores, creative forms of exercise and games, and learning better ways to communicate among family members the challenges and solutions endured under lockdown[20].

   In this regard, lockdowns also present an opportunity for child abusers to harm children. Not only abusers at home but also online through cyberbullying or sexual exploitation due to the increased exposure to online platforms[21]. It is obvious that children are rarely in a position to fight back, but at the same time the use of new technologies has proven an effective measure to report such egregious acts. Additionally, children without parental care are especially vulnerable to exploitation and other negative coping measures. For example, the combined effect of school closures and economic distress is likely to force some children to drop out of school, to become child soldiers, and into child marriage in high-risk countries[22].


   Participation stands for the right to do things, express oneself and have an effective voice as an individual child. If the rights to freedom are considered so vital for adults, they should be for children too. Children have the right to participate in communities with programs and services adapted to their age. With a chance to analyze the major issues affecting them now and in the future. As they examine their rights, they should explore their own responsibilities. It is true that children are members of their families and schools, but also of the specific generation into which they happen to be born. So, communities can be built on partnerships rather than on sole adult interests. This includes children’s involvement in libraries and community programs, youth voice activities, and implicating children as decision-makers.

   In summary, we need to get to know and understand the child generation which we are dealing with, and not to imagine that our adult-oriented knowledge of childhood reflects adequately their reality. Especially in this situation, we need to be available to them with our experiences and skills. Partnering with children will definitely help us as adults to better understand their growing world and avoid empty rhetoric[23].

   Parenting seems to be suitable again to foster children’s participation. By improving communication parents and caregivers make children active participants of their concerns and endeavours[24]. For example by sharing experiences and challenges; talking instead of just texting; paying attention to body language and facial expressions; acknowledging the positive intent behind what the other parent or child is suggesting, practicing kindness in order to show them how you would want them to treat others, discussing transitions between households and prepare your children for hand-over as best as you can[25].

   The lockdown is also a great opportunity to recognize the unpaid work at home and make children participate in the household care and chores. There is an urgent need to redistribute care work within families–so that women and men share care more equally. This is crucial in order to free the most marginalized women and girls from the unfair and unequal amount of care work they currently do. During the pandemic, important steps can be given to redistribute care work and keep children occupied and implicated[26]. For instance, tending to others, cooking, cleaning and fetching water and firewood are essential daily tasks for the wellbeing of societies, communities and the functioning of the economy[27].


   An interesting discussion has been set. The contract between signatories and children demands a coordinated implication of governments and families to unfold child rights in its provision, protection and participation implications.

   Expanded social protection programmes implemented during the pandemic, should consider explicit support to children and their families. Especially these days and the ones ahead, the family unit is the first layer of social protection and so, the most effective way to ensure children resource allocation and shield them from extreme poverty.

   The increased exposure of children to new technologies pose opportunities and challenges to governments and parents alike. Child protection and parent’s skill building is essential while investing in broadband access and digital public goods that support learning, alongside with regulations that ensure children’s privacy and safety.

   Children and youth participation in the decision making processes is crucial to fulfil the commitment between governments and adults with their rights. Confinement has created opportunities for children to be heard and also to get involved at home, at school and in various campaigns to tackle the pandemic effects.

   Looking forward, it is clear that governments have taken a wide range of actions to mitigate the effects of the pandemic and response efforts. From global to local, now and in the days ahead, best practices and interventions need to adapt and foresee possible adverse unintended effects on children to ensure their rights enjoyment and wellbeing. Although, if polices oversee the role of parents, caregivers and families, the effectiveness of those interventions will be limited. As it has been evident during the health crisis, the first layer of protection of children is hard to replace.


   This contribution was developed in collaboration with the International Organizations Department of the International Federation for Family Development.


[1] Shared Responsibility, Global Solidarity: Responding to the socio-economic impacts of COVID-19. United Nations (2020). Available at:

[2] Antonio Guterres, United Nations Secretary General (April 17, 2020). See also, ‘Everyone included: protecting vulnerable groups in times of a global pandemic’, available at:

[3] Dominic Richardson, ‘Child and Family Policies in a Time of Economic Crisis’, OECD (2010).

[4] Dominic Richardson, ‘Child and Family Policies in a Time of Economic Crisis’, OECD (2010). OECD (2011), Doing Better for Families. Available at:

[5] Doing Better for Children, OECD (2009). Available at:

[6] Elisabeth Young-Bruehl , ‘Childism: Confronting Prejudice Against Children’. Yale University Press, (2012).

[7] B. Franklin, B. (ed.), The Rights of Children. Basil Blackwell (1986)

[8] Convention on the Rights of the Child. Available at: and

[9] Convention on the Rights of the Child. Available at: and

[10] Shared Responsibility, Global Solidarity: Responding to the socio-economic impacts of COVID-19. United Nations (2020). Available at:

[11] Policy Brief: The Impact of COVID-19 on children. UNICEF (2020). Available at:

[12] Ugo Gentilini et al.,‘Social Protection and Jobs Responses to COVID-19:A Real-Time Review of Country Measures’, (2020). Available at: Families First Coronavirus Response Act, United States of America Congress (2020). Available at:

[13] ‘Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Children’, CDC (2020). Available at:

Dong Y., Mo X., Hu Y. et al., ‘Epidemiological characteristics of 2143 pediatric patients with 2019 coronavirus disease in China’. Pediatrics (2020); Available at:

Ian P. Sinha et al. ‘COVID-19 infection in children’, The Lancet ( 2020). Available at:

[14] Sarah Baird et al., Aggregate Income Shock and Infant Mortality in the Developing World (2011). Available at:;sequence=1

[15] H. J. Osofsky et al. ,‘Posttraumatic stress symptoms in children after Hurricane Katrina: predicting the need for mental health services’, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. (2009). Available at:

[16] COVID-19 Educational Disruption and Response. UNESCO (2020). Available at:

[17] Measuring digital development. Facts and figures. International Telecommunication Union (ITU) (2019). Available at:

[18] A Familiar Face: Violence in the lives of children and adolescents. Unicef (2017). Available at:

[19] Policy Brief: The Impact of COVID-19 on Women. UN-Women (2020). Available at:

[20] Guidelines on physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep for children under 5 years of age World Health Organization (‎2019)‎. Available at:

[21] Coronavirus, Online Learning, Social Isolation, and Cyberbullying: How To Support Our Students Cyberbullying Research Center, (March 16, 2020). Available at:

[22]Impacts of COVID-19 on children in alternative care (Eurochild, 2020). Available at:

[23] Marjatta Bardy, ‘FICE Bulletin’ (2000). Available at:

[24] Supporting shared parenting in the time of COVID-19 – Practitioner Guide, Australian Catholic University, (April, 2020). Available at:

[25] Supporting shared parenting in the time of COVID-19 – Parents Guide, Australian Catholic University. (April, 2020). Available at:

[26] Finding Ways to Keep Children Occupied During These Challenging Times, American Academy of Pediatrics (2020). Available at:

[27] Time to Care. Oxfam International (2020). Available at:

Role of Families In Youth Transitions

by José A. Vázquez, United Nations Representative of International Federation for Family Development

   Family support, network, aspirations, and expectations play a crucial role in youth transitions. The ability of the family members along with associated social policy schemes is put to test when young citizens start their way into emancipation. The role of the family and the policymakers is to make this transition worth the investment along the educational and training period. The National Transfer Accounts (NTA) represent a promising tool to measure the role of Latin American families in supporting youth transitions. The type, amount and reach of the generational economy are key to understanding the level of support and the type of expectations an aspirations of Latin American families toward their members in youth transitions. The NTA could contribute to measuring, through the private and public transfers of the generational economy, the reallocations of resources and so, the intentions in each period of time of the investments in education, training, and services towards preparing the transition. The paper will try to briefly present the NTA, its origins, method, and challenges. It will also present the NTA applications and connotations and explore some national realities and challenges. And lastly, some recommendations that may be done based on the regional data availability. The data and literature has been retrieved from the World Bank repository, UN Statistical Commission and NTA database.

Origins of the National Transfer Accounts

   The National Transfer Accounts (NTA) were born in 2004 and are recognized up until today as a well-established empirical tool for understanding the generational economy. [1] There are 80 participating countries involved in the project that are providing data, most of it come from government records and surveys matching in their aggregates the widely used System of National Accounts (SNA). [2]

   The main concept recognized in the NTA is the relationship between individuals who have economic resources to give and those who need them, those who incur a life cycle deficit during their youth and old age, when their consumption exceeds their labor income, and a life cycle surplus during their working years when their labor income more than covers their consumption. The eventual resource reallocation created between generations and across time can be consistently quantified and linked to the economic and social development of every family and society as a whole. [3]

   The NTA adds the subtle dimension of age and time to how we see economic flows: dependents who need various forms of financing to survive and thrive, and workers who finance them. The degree of such flows when seen through age and time is significant. For example, in 2004 older persons in Germany, continued to be net givers of private transfers, though small, they received public transfers equal to 10% of the country’s GDP, which is totally different to the small 1% received by Mexican older population. In this regard, the flows, captured by the NTA are representative of the demographic differences between countries and more importantly for us of the varying roles of the state, the markets and of families, all of which influence resource reallocations. [4]

   The rapid population growth seen in the second half of the 20thcentury concerned academics and politicians and provoked an intense debate on the developmental consequences of such rates, particularly for lowincome countries. Experts warned of food and land shortages due to the increasing demand, potential rise of unemployment, deterioration of income and capital formation, degradation of natural resources and the general fall of human welfare. [5]

   Reports and Commissions around the world recommended actions in lowincome countries to stabilize their rapid population growth rates, prevent effects on poverty and improving policies on education, childcare services, and family planning [6]. Since then, the fear of the effect of population growth on economic development was negatively perceived and the literature reflected the view that population growth control is a necessary condition to sustain human welfare and human rights.[7]

   However, in 1960s the world’s population growth rate reached its peak and international concerns switched to population aging. Old age dependency increased and raised questions about healthcare and retirement. Rapidly, experts started to relate demographic structure to classical macroeconomic models in order to see the economy through the lenses of several generations and turn to the role of intergenerational transfers to livelong transitions. [8]

The methodology of the National Transfer Accounts

   The NTA project comes into this context and helps to quantify the allocation of economic resources between ages, in a unified and standardized manner. The National Transfer Accounts are based on a, age specific, flow identity that captures economic movements at each point in time. In this way, it can be differentiated from the STAs while introducing age to the aggregate data. It marks the essential role of intergenerational transfer while disaggregating the major components of income, consumption, and savings by age.

   In the future, with much more national accounts completed, the role of families, government and market can be better measured in the age reallocation of public and private resources. Plus, it can provide realistic estimates of intergenerational flows that have been of interest to researchers and policymakers for many decades as alternatives or complements to public policy. Through a standardized dataset available for many countries, the NTA becomes particularly useful when analyzing a wide range of issues such as social security, pensions systems, intergenerational equity, human capital accumulation, and youth unemployment.

   The NTA method captures those economic flows and pinpoints the aggregate budget constrain for individuals of certain age by adding two variables to the life cycle model: age of the individual and the relevant time period. So, the economic life cycle model at a certain age, summing both public and private flows and capturing at the same time those domestic and international, can be seenas follows [9]:

Inflows L(x,t) + K(x,t) + P(x,t) + T(x,t) + C(x,t)

Outflows L(x,t) + K(x,t) + P(x,t) + T(x,t) + C(x,t) + S(x,t)

L (value of labor income inflow received for age (or age group). K (capital income inflow. P (property income flow, received (+) and spent ()). T (flow of transfers net of paid taxes received (+) and spent ()). C (consumption). S (savings from the residual between the various types of income net of consumption).

   If the identity of inflows and outflows is rearranged, the result shows the economic life cycle for each age and thus, the mechanism to determine the resources reallocated across generations.

Age re-allocations

Lifetime deficit = Net transfers+ Asset-based re-allocations.

C(x,t) L(x,t) = [T+(x,t) –T(x,t)]+ [A(x,t) S(x,t)]

   The lifetime deficit (or surplus) is the difference between consumption and labor income for every relevant age or age group and funded by or distributed through transfers and asset based reallocations for each age at each point in time, where asset income inflow (A) represents the sum of capital and net property income.

   In this regard, the lifetime deficit, as the key concept of generational economy, includes households’ private and public consumption of various goods and services, private and public education, healthcare and other extracurricular activities for the members of the family. While, labor income tries to reflect salaries, bonuses, and benefits, along with self-employed and unpaid family members income.

Youth transitions: Family support, networks, expectations and aspirations

   Family support is a recognized social protective function during the transition periods of emancipation or dependency. Many families experience uncertainty and vulnerability during these phases, especially when their young members move into adulthood, procure access to employment opportunities and decent work while seeking their autonomy [10]. However, the rapid socioeconomic transformations, often combined with the eroding capacity of the State to protect households through social policy interventions, leave a large number of families poor and vulnerable [11]

   The role of families in social inclusion and integration is indispensable for the social inclusion of all individuals, especially youth. There is a rising necessity to support youth transitions as a key component of social inclusion and poverty eradication [12]. Nevertheless, the challenges faced by parents and young members of the family are growing. Either because families with strong intergenerational support and reliance are declining in numbers or, because many young people postpone marriage, stay single and live longer with their parents [13], or even because the changing population age structures is attracting more attention to older persons [14].

   The family role and the state social scheme effectiveness are put to test when the youth emancipation is in process. Families and policies are called to demonstrate their ability to support the transition, the responsiveness of the family and institutional networks and the expectations and aspirations for the best outcome. In this regard, family support may improve employment options, career perspectives, and educational, skills and training development. Also, the access to family, social, professional and recreational networks might improve the choices and timeline to have employment opportunities [15]. Finally, the expectations and aspirations can play a motivational role in the job search while fostering competitiveness, supporting role models and setting wage goals.

  Unfortunately, family support, networks, expectations, and aspirations are variables difficult to measure. The intensity and extent of the family implication is not clearly reflected in the data available. Nevertheless, if we would be able to determine the type, amount and reach of the generational transfers intended to support the youth transition at a time period and age, we would be able to translate that investment into the support, expectations, and aspirations of parents grandparents regarding the future of their children in Latin America.

   When families spend a great deal of money on the education and training on their children, they usually cultivate great expectations and secure that investment along the growing period. But also, families dedicate a great deal of time and effort during the transition period. The first is intended to be more effective in the long term and with better outcomes, while the latter tends to prioritize the effectiveness over the goal.

   The NTA is a great tool to trace the dynamics of the so called lifetime deficit through three different periods of individuals’ lives: the deficit period of children in the family that do not work, but consume more than they produce; followed by a surplus period when the youth enters in a working age and start to accumulate wealth, so producing more than consuming; and the deficit period where older persons retire or do not earn enough to cover their consumption.

   In this cycle, our attention is turned to the generation who is transitioning from a deficit period to a surplus period, from childhood into youth. Other generations in the family as of parents, grandparents or siblings (of older age) would have given their support or will be keen to do so in order to ensure this transition. With their support, the other generations in the family will inspire the young ones to become those working age individuals, who enjoy life cycle surpluses and not only fund their own consumption but also provide transfers and asset based re-allocations for children and elderly.

   Thanks to the ability to calculate the age re-allocations of net transfers and assets, together with the variables of consumption, especially in education, training and services we can be able to measure the level, quality and extent of the support of parents (in the surplus period) and grandparents (returning to the deficit period) to the future or ongoing transitions into adulthood. Furthermore, we can determine the expectations and aspirations of the family members regarding their youth while tracing the age re-allocations of consumption in areas such as training, services, and extracurricular activities.

   The convenience of this inter-generational exchange perspective, where various forms and mechanisms of economic support are shown, is very useful [16]. First, transfers as re-allocations of resources between individuals that do not involve a formal, explicit quid pro quo can be made within the family or through the public sector, via the collection of taxes and the allocation of government spending [17]. Together the private and public transfers are complimentary and are important in most societies. For example, the extension of public education expands a public in kind transfer system that benefits all covered school age children.

   Plus, another class of reallocation is asset-based reallocation, as the accumulation and reduction of financial and physical assets over the lifetime. So, for example, in many Latin American countries, real estate and financial markets have become more accessible and the current younger generations of adults are accumulating more assets than their parents’ generation, allowing them to support themselves when old. [18]

  These transfers and the asset-based reallocation show the implications and effects of various types of family support according with inter-generational re-allocations. Their components can be measured, studied and compared between Latin American realities.

    Although in Latin America private transfers finance more than 60% of the consumption of young people [19], there are cases of heavy reliance on public transfers too, such as Uruguay, Brazil, with generous and extensive social security coverage and extensive public primary education programs, respectively [20]. For instance, the private transfers in Chile are substantial, as in many societies, Latin American countries are mostly familial transfers those supporting children, teenagers, and young adults. In Chile during 1997, the generations under the age of 27 are net transfer receivers. One of the reasons that may explain the level and age distribution of familial transfers in Chile is that, although the country has a fairly extensive coverage of public education and government transfers to children are quite significant, these transfers cover only a fraction of children’ total consumption, hence the need for substantial familial support. [21]

   In Ecuador, substantive efforts have been made to support youth transitions with a conjunction of public and private transfers [22]. While in Colombia and Costa Rica the focus on the family support has been set to the time spent at home in unpaid care work arrangement. The dynamics reflect the transfers of unpaid activities done by one generation to another. At the same time, it is an opportunity to measure the expectations and aspirations of the dedication of time at home related to the outcomes after the transitions. [23]

   For El Salvador, the applied methodology of the NTA goes into the details of the private transfers. The Central American country describe the commitment and support of the family from the very beginning of the deficit lifetime and describes the tuition expense, supplies, uniforms, texts, school shoes, parents’ quo-ta, monthly fee, refreshments as part of the private transfer. [24]

Conclusions and recommendations

  The measurable age re-allocations of transfer and as-sets contribute determining the role of families in supporting youth employment outcomes. The more data availability provided in Latin American in this regard, will contribute to the public and private sector support to the transitions from childhood into adulthood.

   Moreover, the capacity to track the transfer between generations among the family will contribute to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, especially while “substantially increase the number of youth (and adults) who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship”. [25]

Note: Paper presented at the Expert Group Meeting on “The Role of Families and Family Policy in Supporting Youth Transitions” held on 11-12 December 2018 in Doha, Qatar and organized by the Doha International Family Institute (DIFI), a member of Qatar Foundation for Education, in collaboration with the Division for Inclusive Social Development of the Department of Economic and Social affairs (UNDESA) and the International Federation for Family Development (IFFD). More info at:


Andrés Chacón, Social and Cultural Anthropology Master candidate, KU Leuven University (Belgium)
Instituto de la Familia, Universidad de la Sabana (Colombia)


[1] Mason, A. & Lee R. (2011).
[2] National Transfer Accounts. [3] D’Albis, H. & Moosa, D. (2015).
[4] D’Albis, H. & Moosa, D. (2015).
[5] Coale, A. & Hoover, E. (1958).
[6] The Pearson Report: A new strategy for global development (1970).
[7] Population and the American Future. Technical report (March 1972); Population Planning: Sector working paper. Technical Report 11067 (March 1972); World Population Plan of Action. Technical report (1974).
[8] Samuelson, P. (1958).
[9] L (value of labor income inflow received for age (or age group). K (capital income inflow. P (property income flow, received (+) and spent (-)). T (flow of transfers net of paid taxes received (+) and spent (-)). C (consumption). S (savings from the residual between the various types of income net of consumption).
[10] Third Committee Draft Resolution, Follow-up to the tenth anniversary of the International Year of the Family and beyond, A/C.3/73/L.19/Rev.1, 2018, PP. 3.
[11] Report of the Secretary-General, Follow-up to the tenth anniversary of the International Year of the Family and beyond, A/66/62–E/2011/4, 2011, OP 24.
[12] Report of the Secretary-General, Follow-up to the tenth anniversary of the International Year of the Family and beyond, A/73/61–E/2018/4, 2018, OP 71.
[13] Report of the Secretary-General, Follow-up to the tenth anniversary of the International Year of the Family and beyond, A/66/62–E/2011/4, 2011, OP 4.
[14] Mason, A, Lee, R., Stojanovic, D., Abrigo, M., Syud, A. (2016)
[15] Ali, Amjad, Shafiqa Ahsan and Sophia F. Dziegielewski. (2017). Social and family capital and youth career intension: a case study in Pakistan. Cogent Business and management 4, p. 12.
[16] Report of the Secretary-General, Follow-up to the tenth anniversary of the International Yearof the Family and beyond, A/73/61–E/2018/4, 2018, OP. 45.
[17] These transfers are given or received in cash or kindas good and services.
[18] Bravo, J. & Holz M. (2009).
[19] Finance of consumption, Latin American countries. NTA project, of countries with available data, as of May 2009.
[20] Turra, C., Queiroz, B., Rios-Neto, E. (2011). Bucheli, M. & González, C. (2011).
[21] Bravo, J. & Holz M. (2009).
[22] Fretes-Cibilis, V., Giugale, M., Somensatto, E., editors (2008).
[23] Urdinola, P. & Urdino, J. (2017). Jimenez-Fontana, P. (2016).
[24] Werner Peña, S. & Rivera, M.E. (2016).
[25] Sustainable Development Goal 4, Target 4.4.